What are Quantum Computers and How Do They Work?

Quantum Computers are considered to be the future of humans and the most powerful computers ever. Every big brand from Google to IBM and even small startups are racing to build quantum computers. If you have heard of them and you often wonder what are quantum computers and how do they work, then we have got the answers right here.

Understanding Quantum Computing

Quantum computing aims to take advantage of subatomic particles’ ability to exist in more than one state at any point in time. Thanks to these particles, operations can be completed at a faster pace and by using less energy than current computers.

In current computing, a bit is a single piece of information which can exist in two states zero or one. But in quantum computing, the focus is on using qubits, i.e., quantum bits that are quantum systems with two states. These quantum bits are better than one and zero because they can easily exist in any superposition of these values.

How Quantum Computers Work?

Quantum computers are very well suited to solve particular mathematical problems such as finding very large prime numbers. Quantum computers can easily crack systems used to keep information secure due to the ability to find the large prime number as prime numbers are vital in cryptography. Due to these risks, researchers are working hard to develop technology that can resist quantum hacking.

Apart from helping break locks on secure information online, quantum computers are also handy to model complex chemical reactions. In July 2016, Google was able to use a quantum device to simulate hydrogen molecule, and later IBM succeeded in the process of modeling even complex molecules. Researchers hope that the day is not far ahead when quantum simulations would be handy in designing entirely new molecules that can be used in medicine.

Are Quantum Computers Real?

Yes, quantum computers have been built. The first was built in 1998, and it was a 2-qubit quantum computer that could perform trivial calculations. In 2000, a 4 and a 7-qubit quantum computer were built. These innovations prove that the fundamental theory regarding quantum computers is quite sound.

Some engineers and physicists think that upscaling these experiments to full-scale computing systems is quite complicated, but giants like IBM and Google don’t agree. This, perhaps is what compels them to spend considerable time and money in to achieve the goal of making a fully functional quantum computer shortly.

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